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Assignment Sheets

Weekly Assignment Sheet #7 9/12/16  

This Week in Science  (9/12/16)   

Cell membrane and transport Practice quizzes 


Monday -  More on photosynthesis and respiration.  Assignment: Work on your study guide - due Thursday


Tuesday –    Making connections ... photosynthesis and respiration.  Anaerobic vs aerobic respiration.  Intro to transport of materials in living things.  Assignment: Work on your study guide - due Thursday

Quiz Thursday as well!


Wednesday -  Webquest on molecular transport!   CDC continued for “cells are the basic unit of structure and function.   Assignment:  Study guide and Quiz on Thursday.   Test  Sept 20 - Cellular Processes 


Thursday  – Study guide and examples of transport to examine.  Quiz!  Assignment:  amoeba sisters cell transport... complete handout!


Friday –  Into the Lab!   Assignment:    Finish CDC paragraph to provide evidence of the cell theory...Cells are the basic unit of structure and function.  Study for test on Tuesday.


        Molecular Transport Graphic Organizer -- Fill in the missing information.    




Which of the following is true about passive transport? 

    1. It does not allow materials to diffuse. 
    2. It requires energy to create a higher concentration of materials outside the cell. 
    3. It requires energy to create a higher concentration of materials inside the cell.
    4. It allows particles to pass without the use of cellular energy (ATP).
  1. The sodium-potassium pump is a good example of ions being moved out of a cell against a concentration gradient. The concentration of sodium ions is greater on the outside of the cell. What method is used by the cell to rid itself of more sodium?                                        a.  osmosis     b. facilitated diffusion        c. diffusion             d. active transport 
  2. Where are carrier proteins located? ________________________                                                                                               3.  
  3. Which type of transport is occurring in the diagram? _____________pastedGraphic_2.pdf

4.  In what type of passive transport do protein channels assist molecules across the membrane? _______________________

5.  Between an area of high concentration and one of low concentration there is a ____________. 

6.  How does the steepness of the concentration gradient influence the rate of transport?                                   _____________________________________________________________________

7.  The movement of water across a membrane from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration is ______________________. 

Weekly Assignment Sheet #6 9/5/16  

This Week in Science  (9/5/16)   video explanation of photosynthesis


Tuesday –    Microscope work... ponds and scientific drawings.  Assignment:  Define the following Key terms using the article Looking at Leaves, Cellular Respiration, Glucose, Chloroplast, Chlorophyll, Guard Cells,   Stomata, Epidermis, Cuticle, Mesophyll,  Xylem, Phloem, Transpiration


Wednesday -  Stomatal Units and Photosynthesis Cards.  Assignment:  Complete and study reader's guide for Looking at Leaves.  Be able to show the photosynthesis equation with your Cards.  Study guide will go home tonight - due next Thursday, Sept. 15.  Begin these questions.   Test  Sept 20 - Cellular Processes 


Thursday  – Leaf Models  Assignment: Read Chapter 2 pps 68-73 and answer Lesson 4 Review from pp. 73.  

Check out the video explanation of photosynthesis shown above.


Friday –  Introduction to Cellular Respiration.   Define:  Mitochondria, ATP, anaerobic, aerobic.   Notebook Check.    Assignment:    Finish CDC paragraph to provide evidence of the cell theory...All living things are composed of one or more cells.



KNOW THIS!      CO2     +   H2O     --------->     C6H12O6    +      O2



What are the raw materials needed for photosynthesis (the reactants-starting materials)?  

What is produced by this chemical reaction (the final products)?

What materials enter and leave the leaf through the stomata?

How does water enter and leave the leaf?


Vocab:  Photosynthesis, Cellular Respiration, Glucose, Chloroplast, Chlorophyll, Guard Cells,   Stomata, Epidermis, Cuticle, Mesophyll, Mitochondria, ATP,  Aerobic,  Xylem, Phloem, Transpiration    (Tue-Wed) 


Chemistry:  atom, molecule, element, compound(Wed.)  Mitochondria, ATP, anaerobic, aerobic.  (Thurs-Fri)


For next week: Anaerobic, Fermentation, diffusion, osmosis, equilibrium, active and passive transport, endocytosis, exocytosis





A Bit of Chemistry...

A Element is a pure substance that is found on the Periodic Table.  An atom is 1 particle of an element.  On the Periodic Table, an atom is just a single capital letter or a single capital letter with a lower case letter.....    

Pb (lead)                Au (gold - just like Auburn!)              N (nitrogen)


Remember that compounds must have at least 2 different elements  (capital letters!)  

NaCl (salt)     CO (carbon monoxide  -  poisonous!)


A molecule just has to have more than one atom... 

H2  (hydrogen gas-explosive!)     NH3 (yes, this is also a compound:)          


Can you do it?

Identify the following as  compounds, molecules or atoms.   Some may be more than one thing!

 1.    N    (nitrogen)                           CO2  (carbon dioxide)   

2.  H2SO4   (sulfuric acid)                CuS0 (copper sulfate)      

3.  NH3    (ammonia)                        Al (aluminum) 

4.  CH4  (methane - stinky!)            Fe (iron)

5.  C6H12O6  (glucose)                    H2 (hydrogen gas)

6.   He ( helium )                              H2O (water)



WAS #5 8/29/16  

WAS  #5   --  Weekly Assignment Sheet   8/29 - 9/2/16   adams- cells 

Need some video review or online help?   Cells, cells they are made of organelles           Cells from other cells-cell theory  (Parr)

Lots of great quiz to test your knowledge    Classification 


Monday – Levels of Organization/Division of Labor in multicellular organisms.  Vocabulary and concept quiz tomorrow.   Assignment: Study guide due on Wednesday Test on Thursday.    Watch and complete the worksheet if not finished in class!


Tuesday-  Quiz!  Microscopic plant and animal cells.   Assignment: Study guide due Wednesday-Test Thursday.  


Wednesday -  Study guide checked/discussed.  Review!  Assignment: Test tomorrow.  


Thursday –   Test over Cells and Classification  Assignment: begin gathering ideas concerning the Cell Theory... what you have read and seen in our lab investigations.


Friday –  Revisiting Ponds. Assignment: Complete the CDC writing providing evidence for the Cell Theory.


Can You Identify These Cell Structures?

1. I’m a real powerhouse.                         6.  I’m a series of tubes

That’s plain to see.                 found throughout the cell.  

I break down food                  I transport proteins

to release energy.                   and other things as well.                                                      

What am I? __________        My name is ________


2.  I’m strong and stiff            7.  I’m full of holes

getting through me is tough.   flexible and thin.

I’m found only in plants,         I control what gets out

but I guess that’s enough.        as well as what comes in.

What am I?  ___________       My name is ________


3.  My names means                   8.  Proteins are made here

“colored bodies”                               although I am quite small.   

I contain DNA.  I pass traits            You can find me in the 

to new cells in a systematic way.      Cytoplasm or attached to 

My name is __________                    the ER’s wall. 

                                                          My name:  _________


4.  I’m the control center of         9.  I’ve been called a “storage tank”

the cell or so they say.  I                     by those with little taste.  

regulate activities from day                I’m a sac filled  water,

to day.                                                   food, enzymes or waste.

 My name:  ____________           My name:  __________


5.  Found only in plant cells      10.  Since I contain many enzymes,

I’m green as can be.                    I can digest an injured cell;

I make food for the plant            I can break down a large molecule

using the sun’s energy.                into smaller ones as well.

Who am I?_________                                   My name ____________

Sort each of these items into the correct category then try to add 2 additional entries to each group...

digestive   brain   epithelial   respiratory    heart   mitochondria    cancer    connective    frog    skin    nucleus   nerve    gall bladder    snake    muscle     chloroplast    grass     nervous     red blood        nerve

  Levels of organization

Cell           Tissue Organ Organ System     Organism     Organelle





Content Outline: Types of Cells and Cell Structures (6.1) – Part 1


  1. Cells and the Cell Theory

A.  Cells are considered to be the basic unit of life, which can perform all of life’s functions. 

B.  All living organisms are composed of one or more cells. Part 2 of the Cell Theory Proposed by Schwann and Schleiden in 1839.

C.  All cells come from existing cells     Part 3 of the Cell Theory-  Proposed by Rudolf Virchow in 1858.


  1. Microscope Development

A..Robert Hooke develops a compound microscope, in 1665. He gave us the word “cells”

B.  Anton von Leeuwenhoek develops a single lens microscope in 1674.  Saw first living protist that he called “animacules”


Unit 4: Cell Structure and Function   Content Outline: Types of Cells and Cell Structures (4.1) – Part 3

I.  Ribosomes 

A.  These are cellular particles made of  RNA  and proteins. (Not organelles… all cell typeshave them so that all cells can make proteins and enzymes.)

B.  Sites of Protein Synthesis/Production.          C.  Found on Endoplasmic Reticulum (Rough) or in cytoplasm.


II.  Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)

A.  It is composed of a network of small tubes called cisternae....  for transport of proteins...  “subway system”

B.  They are always found just outside and around the nucleus.

C.  Two types of ER can exist inside Eukaryotic cells:

      1.  Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum     manufacturing of materials occurs here

      2.  Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum       protein synthesis. Ribosomes are bound to the outside of the organelle and they  deposit the protein inside as it is made by the ribosome. 


III.  Golgi Apparatus modifies proteins  ...  “FedEx Packers”

A.  It is like “Gift Wrapping”  to prepare the protein for export through the cell membrane.

B.  They are also composed of flattened tubes also called cisternae (These look like a stack of pancakes.)


Unit 4: Cell Structure and Function   Content Outline: Types of Cells and Cell Structures (4.1) – Part 4

I. Lysosomes  ...  “Cleanup Crew”

  1. They are involved in digestion and recycling  of cell materials 
  2. They are full of digestive enzymes. (Lysozyme is the name of the enzyme.)


II. Vacuoles   “storage tanks”

A.  Storage structures for various products needed by the cell... in particular food, water and waste

B.  Plant cells have large vacuoles.... They store water to help keep plants upright and sturdy.


III. Vesicles ... “bubbles filled with materials”

A.  Used to transport materials around and in and out of the cell.

B.  They are formed from the membranes of the Endoplasmic Reticulum or Golgi apparatus.


IV.   Mitochondria (Nicknamed the “Power House”) 

A.  This organelle is involved in making energy by performing the process of Cellular Respiration

      1.  Cellular Respiration is the process of using glucose and oxygen and creating carbon dioxide, water and ATP energy.

B.  Depending on the cell function, some cells have more mitochondria (ex:  muscle cells in legs).


Unit 4: Cell Structure and Function    Content Outline: Types of Cells and Cell Structures (4.1) – Part 5

I.  Chloroplasts 

A.  These organelles are the site of photosynthesis in plants and algae...sugar (food) from water, CO2 and sunlight energy.

 B.  These contain the pigment chlorophyll. that collects the sun’s energy during the day to power photosynthesis.



II.  Cell Wall (In plants)   Plant cells create this structure for protection and support.. (Basically, to maintain shape and structure.)

B.  Composed of Cellulose (Found in all plant cells.)








WAS #4 8/22/16 Cells  

Science Assignment Sheet 8/22/16
OMM Text online: then click on Student Access on

the left of the page. Code is AMSTIOMM. Then select the chapter .

Visit Quizlet
**** By Wednesday, please send in a bottle of clear Karo Syrup for building our cell models, if possible. *****

Monday – Turn in your project. Microscopes and Worms! Assignment: Study vocabulary and make sure you have completed the lab sheet!
Tuesday - Intro to cells and the cell theory. Assignment: Complete Prokaryote coloring sheet and questions. Study!

Wednesday – More on cell parts and their functions. Assignment: Complete your cell foldable if not completed in class.
Thursday – Building a Cell Model. Assignment: Study guide due Monday.
Friday – More work on our Cell Model. Assignment: Study guide due Monday.

Vocabulary: cell, cell theory, prokaryotic cells, eukaryotic cells, flagella, organelles
Eukaryotic Cell parts: Cytoplasm, Nucleus, Cell Membrane, Endoplasmic Reticulum, Ribosomes, Lysosomes,

Golgi Bodies, Mitochondria, Chloroplast, Vacuole, Cell Wall, Chromosomes (chromatin)

Introduction to cells...
Cells Cells made of organelles

Eukaryotic Cell Prokaryotic Cell

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Contrast these cells!


1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Match the cell part with its job:

_____ Powerhouse of the cell, ATP energy made here using aerobic cellular respiration

_____ Photosynthesis occurs here

_____ Transport system of the cell and a site for manufacturing, ribosomes are sometimes found here

_____ These package proteins for transport out of the cell

_____ These are the protein factories of the cell

_____ These are rod shaped structures made of DNA that pass traits from one generation to the next. When relaxed called chromatin.

_____ This is the control center of the cell that directs cellular activities _____ These are very large in plant cells and hold food, water and waste _____ This is the gatekeeper of the cells that regulates what comes in/out _____ This is a rigid, tough structure made of cellulose that protects

and supports plant cells.

_____ This is the jelly like material that holds all the organelles.

_____ Found mainly in animal cells, these are bags of acid that break down worn out cell parts or invading bacteria.

What are the 3 parts of the Cell theory?

Add 15 total things to this chart!

Plant Cells

a. lysosomes

b. nucleus c. cytoplasm

d. cell wall
e. chloroplast

f. ribosome

g. mitochondria h. cell membrane i. vacuoles
j. ER

k. Golgi bodies l. chromosomes

Animal Cells


WAS #3 8/15/16 Characteristics and Classification  

WAS #3... This Week in Science 8/15/16 Characteristics of living things!


OMM Text online: then click on Student Access on the left of the page. Code is AMSTIOMM. Then select the chapter . Visit Quizlet
Adams -
Classification and Characteristics of Living things

Monday: Study Guide and review for test. More on Science Processes and Gummy Bears. Homework: Study for tomorrow’s test!

Tuesday: Test. Homework: Complete your lab reports.
Wednesday: Characteristics and Needs of Living Things. “What’s in an Organism’s Name?” reader’s guide.

Homework: Complete your Reader’s Guide. Study your vocabulary. Triangle project is due on Monday.

Thursday: Building Systems: Ponds and Planters...biotic or abiotic? Homework: McGraw Hill Text: Chapter 1 Lesson 2 Classifying Living Things...Read the Lesson pages 19-23 and answer questions 1-8 on page 24. Select an organism to investigate and bring devises tomorrow if possible. Projects due on Monday.

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Rubric for Classification Triangle Project On card stock paper... Common Name of your Favorite Animal

Scientific Name... separate from triangle... Proper format At least one picture of your animal

Classification triangle... seven layers of triangle completed

2 points 4 points 3 points

14 points

2 points 25 points

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Neatness, creativity, overall presentation

Small test grade


Friday: Taxonomy/classification of living things. Projects will be started in class. “Taxonomy Taken a step Further” (Investigating Biodiversity and Independence pages 16-19). Homework: Study vocabulary and Outlines. Triangle project is due on Monday. ______________________________________________________________________

Vocabulary: Biotic Abiotic Homeostasis Organism Cell Multicellular Unicellular Taxonomy Linnaeus Aristotle Kingdom Genus Species Dichotomous Key Cladogram

Classifying Living Things...


House cat


Sugar Maple Strep throat bacteria




Eukaryote Prokaryote-Bacteria




Plantae Eubacteria




Magnoliophyta Firmicutes




Rosidae Bacilli




Sapindales Lactobacillales




Aceraceac Streptococcaceae




Acer Streptococcus




saccharum pyogenes

Why do you think it is important to use scientific names instead of just common names? Why do you think Linnaeus used Latin and Greek in naming organisms? Is there only one way to classify a set of objects? Is there a “best” way? How are living things classified?

Characteristics of Life Outline: (Friday Night/Weekend)

I. There are a wide variety of living things that exist on our planet, but they all have several characteristics in common. A.Living things are composed of one or more cells.

1. A cell is the smallest unit that can perform all life processes.
2. Cells are surrounded by a semipermeable (allows certain things in and out) membrane. 3. They also contain DNA, the information for making structures.
4. Some organisms have only one cell (single-celled) or many cells (multicellular).

B.Living things can sense and respond to change.

  1. All organisms have the ability to sense change in their environment and respond to that change.

    a. Organisms respond to a stimulus
    i. A stimulus is anything that causes a reaction or change in an organism. ii. Stimuli can be gravity, heat, chemicals, light, sound, and hunger

  2. Organisms need to react to their environment to help maintain homeostasis.
    a. Homeostasis is the maintenance of a constant stable internal state in a changing environment.

Content Outline: Characteristics of Living Things (1.4) – Part 2

II. There are a wide variety of living things that exist on our planet, but they all have several characteristics in common.

A.Living things can reproduce.
1. Asexual Reproduction – reproduction that does not require the union of sex cells and usually only

requires one parent.
a. Offspring from asexual reproduction are
genetically identical to the parent. b. Most single-celled organisms reproduce this way.

Sexual Reproduction – reproduction that requires the union of sex cells (egg and sperm), also called gametes.

a. Offspring from sexual reproduction share traits from both of the parents. B.Living things have DNA.

1. The cells of all living things contain the molecule Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). 2. DNA controls the production, structure and function of cells.
3. When organisms reproduce, they pass copies of their DNA on to their offspring. 4. Heredity – the passing of genetic traits from parent to offspring.

Content Outline: Characteristics of Living Things (1.4) – Part 3

III. There are a wide variety of living things that exist on our planet, but they all have several characteristics in common.

A.Living things use energy.

  1. Organisms use energy to carry out the activities of life, such as making food, breaking down food,

    moving things into and out of cells, and building and repairing cells.

  2. ATP – the molecule of cellular power (work).

  3. Metabolism – the sum of all chemical processes that occur in organisms.

B.Living things grow and develop.
1. Whether they are singled cell or multicellular, all living things go through periods of growth and


a) Single-Celled Organisms get larger and then reproduce.
b) Multicellular Organisms increase in number of cells and thereby grow larger.

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Weekly Assignment Sheet #1 8/3/16  

This Week in Science #1         8/3/16         The Nature of Science

Materials needed:  Composition notebook, pencil/sharpener, glue stick

Wednesday:  Welcome!  Introductions, syllabus and procedures.  Lab safety and equipment will be introduced.  What is a life scientist?    Assignment:  Return safety contract and all papers in your envelope.  Have parents email me for a surprise!    Bring composition notebook tomorrow or  $1  to purchase one.  Explorer activity on back---complete by Friday!


Thursday:  Scientific methods.  Lab safety (   Assignment:  Complete your Observation sheet.  Complete your observation sheet as needed. Make sure you have completed the Explorer Activity Writeup from Wednesday 


Friday: Observations and inference. Forming Hypothesis.  Lab Safety  Assignment:  Complete inference page and make sure you can identify scientific questions.  Study vocabulary below using notes and quizlet!


Vocabulary:  Biology    Scientific method    Hypothesis    Quantitative data     Qualitative data     Inference   

coming up...  Independent variable        Control (control group)      Experimental group        Constants                      Dependent variable         Scientific Trials      Peer Review       Theory     Scientific Law    

 (Quizlet:  Nature of Science - Adams  )


Tips for Science Notebook Success ... 

  • Bring your notebook to class every day!          *Label and date everything in your notebook.  
  • Use color-try for 4 colors on each page- to help organize and illustrate your notes.  
  • If you are absent make sure to find out what you missed.  You are still responsible for the work!   
  • Pens may be used for text as desired but not for scientific drawings!  Don’t use markers.  They bleed through the paper.


Use this picture as you answer the QR code safety questions

(write answers on the next page of your Science notebook)


Explorer activity for Wednesday night              Question:  How accurate are our senses?

Hypothesis: (An educated guess- possible answer to your question)If we place our hands into different  temperatures of water, then we will be able to accurately determine the water temperature because of past experiences. 

Materials:  3 large bowls or pans, very warm water, very cold water, room temperature water.

Procedure:  Place 3 large bowls on a table.  Add very warm water to the left hand bowl.  Add ice water (very cold water) to the right hand bowl.  In the center bowl, add room temperature water.  Immediately  place your left hand in the warm water and your right hand in the ice water.  Keep hands under the water for 1 minute.  Next, place both hands in the center bowl at the same time.  

pastedGraphic_1.pdf                                pastedGraphic_2.pdf                                 pastedGraphic_3.pdf

  very warm water                                 room temperature water                                   very cold water

Results/data:  Record what you observed  -  Did both hands feel the same?  




Conclusions: Was the hypothesis supported by your experiment?  Why or why not?



Unit 1: Scientific Process              Content Outline: The Scientific Method (1.3) - Part 1


  1. The Scientific Method
    1. This is a series of steps followed to solve problems. The steps are not always the same for each question you are researching.
    1. State your Problem/Question

1. Develop a question or problem that can be solved through experimentation.

  2. Make sure it is something that interests you.

C. Make Observations/Do Research

  1. Make observations – the act of seeing an object or an event and noting the physical characteristics or points in  

      the event. Observation is an extension of our senses; when we observe, we record what is seen, smelled, 

      tasted, heard, and touched.

a. Qualitative observations- These describe an object’s characteristics, properties, or attributes. For example, in the state, “The apple is red,” red is a qualitative observation of the apple’s appearance.

b. Quantitative observations – These involve a quantity or an amount. In the statement, 

“The apple weighs 125 grams,” 125 grams is a quantitative observation of the apple’s appearance.

c. Inferencesconclusions based on observations. Inferences go beyond what we 

can directly sense  (Example: You make an inference when you use clues from a story to figure out something the author doesn’t tell you.)

        d. Predictions- using observations, inferences, and/or trends in data to predict what 

will happen in the future

(Example: If, on a sunny day, you observe a massive line of dark clouds quickly advances, what prediction can you make?)

  2. Do research - Good quality research helps in developing an excellent hypothesis.     

D.  Formulate a Hypothesis

  1. A hypothesis is a prediction or possible answer to the problem or question.

               2.  Needs to be in an “If, then” statement.

      a.  The “If” part of the statement is what you are going to do (graphed on the X axis).    

                    b.  The “then” part of your statement is what you think will happen and is what you will measure at the end of             the experiment. (graphed on the Y axis)


 IfI run in place for 3 minutes then my heart rate will increase.


Weekly Assignment Sheet #2 8/8/16  

This Week in Science   8/8/16  Nature of Science

  (Quizlet:  Nature of Science - Adams

Monday:  Controlled Experiments.    Homework:  Assignment:  Study vocabulary/concepts.   Complete your inference sheet.   Look at the example of the controlled experiment (color of fall leaves) below and answer the questions.

Tuesday:    More on Controlled Experiments, Conclusions and Peer Review   Homework:  Quiz tomorrow over the concepts we have covered and completed vocabulary.  Work on  the study guide and prepare for Tuesday’s test.               

 Wednesday:  Quiz!  Theories and Laws of science. Homework:  Make sure your notebook is up to date for notebook check.  Work on the study guide and prepare for test.

Thursday:    Peer Review and Lab Equipment Practice     Homework:  Make sure your notebook is up to date for notebook check tomorrow.  Complete the study guide and prepare for test.    

Friday:  Notebook Check.  Pond Building!  Homework: Complete the study guide and prepare for test.     


Magic Sand:  Magic Sand is regular sand which has been dyed and coated with a hydrophobic substance -- a substance which repels water. Oil, for example, is a hydrophobic substance. Pour a little oil into a cup of water and the oil does not mix; it simply floats to the surface. Magic Sand works just the same way except that Magic Sand sinks. The coating on the outside of the magic sand repels water and keeps the sand dry! To store, simply remove the sand from the water with a spoon... it is perfectly dry! Comes in one pound packages.  Educational Innovations $5.95

To make your own:


 Monday Homework How would you design an experiment...You notice that the flowers of a particular plant are pink one year and then the flowers bloom blue the following year. Your friend tells you that adding Miracle-Gro fertilizer to the soil causes the pink flowers to be blue the following yearYou decide to set up a controlled experiment to test this idea.

What is your hypothesis?  


Show how your experiment will be carried out.  What is your independent variable?   

What is your dependent variable?                              Label your control and experimental setups.

          What are some of the constants?

      pastedGraphic.pdf                                                                                                 pastedGraphic_1.pdf

How many samples (trials) in each group?


How you will know if your hypothesis is supported? 

How long your experiment will run?      


Tuesday Bellwork

-->  Writing hypotheses:

a.   Cigarette smoking increases the risk of lung cancer... If _____________________ then __________________

  1. Eating breakfast increases performance in school...If _____________________ then _______________
  1. Hummingbirds are attracted to the color red...If _____________________ then _____________        


Unit 1: Scientific Process              Content Outline: The Scientific Process (1.3) - Part 2-3 

1. Hypothesis and Variables

 A hypothesis is a prediction or possible answer to the problem or question.

It is a relationship between the Independent and Dependent variables.

     A.Independent Variable (manipulated variable) – the factor that is intentionally changed by the experimenter. What you are testing.  This is the “if” part of your hypothesis

     B.Dependent Variable (responding variable) – the factor that may change as a result of changes made in the independent variable (the outcome).  This is what you look at or measure at the end of  the experiment to see if the independent variable made a change.

2.  Controlled Experiment - a two part experiment that tests the effect of one variable

     A. You have to develop and follow a procedure that anyone can follow.

     1. Use precise directions.      2.  Include detailed materials list.  3. The outcome must be quantifiable (measurable).

      2.  Your experiment must have a control group

          a.  A control group - a “no treatment” group where the independent variable is not to applied.                                                  The control group is used as a standard of comparison to see if the independent variable made a difference.      

          b.The control group - exposed to all of the same factors as the experimental group(s) except for the variable being tested.

      3.  Experimental group – group or groups that have the independent variable being applied. 

     4.  Constants – all the factors that the experimenter attempts to keep the same in all of the groups in the experiment.

  1. Analyze Data     A. Confirm the results by retesting if possible.    

     B.  Trials – the number of times you repeat the experiment.  The more trials you can do, the more reliable the results.  Always do at least 3-5 trials.

     C.  Convert results to a graph that is appropriate for the experiment

 4.  Conclusion       A. The written results of the experiment.

  1. Include a statement if the hypothesis was supported or not supported.                                                   
  2. Make recommendations for further study and possible improvements to the procedure.  

5.  Communicate Results

  1.   Be prepared to present the project to an audience. Scientists share information through media, journal and lectures.
  2.   Peer Review... having other scientist repeat your experiment helps to eliminate bias and errors